MulensModel.uniformcausticsampling module

class MulensModel.uniformcausticsampling.UniformCausticSampling(s, q, n_points=10000)

Bases: object

Uniform sampling of a binary lens caustic. Note that calculations take some time for given (s, q). Keep that in mind, when optimizing your fitting routine.

Arguments :
s: float

Separation of the two lens components relative to the Einstein ring size.

q: float

Mass ratio of the two lens components.

n_points: int

Number of points used for internal integration. Default value should work fine.

Instead of standard parameters (t_0, u_0, t_E, alpha), here we use four other parameters: two epochs of caustic crossing (t_caustic_in, t_caustic_out) and two curvelinear coordinates of caustic crossing (x_caustic_in, x_caustic_out).

The curvelinear coordinate, x_caustic, is defined so that going from 0 to 1 draws all caustics for given separation and mass ratio. We use 0-1 range, which is a different convention than in the papers cited below (we also use different symbols for epochs of caustic crossing and curvelinear coordinates). For a wide topology (i.e., 2 caustics), there is a value between 0 and 1 (called x_caustic_sep) which separates the caustics and a trajectory exists only if x_caustic_in and x_caustic_out correspond to the same caustic, i.e., both are smaller than x_caustic_sep or both are larger than x_caustic_sep. For a close topology (i.e., 3 caustics), there are two such separating values.

For description of the curvelinear coordinates, see:

Cassan A. 2008 A&A 491, 587 “An alternative parameterisation for binary-lens caustic-crossing events”

Cassan A. et al. 2010 A&A 515, 52 “Bayesian analysis of caustic-crossing microlensing events”

In order to visualize the curvelinear coordinates, you can run a code like:

import matplotlib.pyplot as plt
import numpy as np
sampling = UniformCausticSampling(s=1.1, q=0.3)
color = np.linspace(0., 1., 200)
points = [sampling.caustic_point(c) for c in color]
x = [p.real for p in points]
y = [p.imag for p in points]
plt.scatter(x, y, c=color)

This will show an intermediate topology. Change s=1.1 to s=2. to plot a wide topology, or to s=0.7 to plot a close topology.

To be specific, the central caustics are plotted counter-clockwise and x_caustic=0. corresponds to right-hand point where the caustic crosses the X-axis. For a wide topology, the planetary caustic is plotted in a similar way. For a close topology, the lower planetary caustic is plotted counter-clockwise and the upper planetary caustic is symmetric, thus plotted clockwise. For planetary caustics in a close topology, the zero-point of x_caustic values is defined in a very complicated way, however it is a smooth function of s and q.

For more advanced fitting of binary lens events see:

Kains N. et al. 2009 MNRAS 395, 787 “A systematic fitting scheme for caustic-crossing microlensing events”

Kains N. et al. 2012 MNRAS 426, 2228 “A Bayesian algorithm for model selection applied to caustic-crossing binary-lens microlensing events”

get_standard_parameters(x_caustic_in, x_caustic_out, t_caustic_in, t_caustic_out)

Get standard binary lens parameters (i.e., t_0, u_0, t_E, alpha; see ModelParameters) based on provided curvelinear parameters.

Note that this function quite frequently raises ValueError exception. This is because not all (s, q, x_caustic_in, and x_caustic_out) correspond to real trajectories. The returned values are in conventions used by Model.

Keywords :
x_caustic_in: float

Curvelinear coordinate of caustic entrance. Must be in (0, 1) range.

x_caustic_out: float

Curvelinear coordinate of caustic exit. Must be in (0, 1) range.

t_caustic_in: float

Epoch of caustic entrance.

t_caustic_out: float

Epoch of caustic exit.

Returns :
parameters: dict

Dictionary with standard binary parameters, i.e, keys are t_0, u_0, t_E, and alpha.

get_x_in_x_out(u_0, alpha)

Calculate where given trajectory crosses the caustic.

Parameters :
u_0: float

The parameter u_0 of source trajectory, i.e., impact parameter.

alpha: float

Angle defining the source trajectory.

Returns :
x_caustic_points: list of float

Caustic coordinates of points where given trajectory crosses the caustic. The length is 0, 2, 4, or 6. Note that if there are 4 or 6 points, then only some pairs will produce real trajectories.

get_uniform_sampling(n_points, n_min_for_caustic=10, caustic=None)

Sample uniformly (x_caustic_in, x_caustic_out) space according to Jacobian and requirement that x_caustic_in corresponds to caustic entrance, and x_caustic_out corresponds to caustic exit. The Jacobian is defined by Eq. 23 of:

Cassan A. et al. 2010 A&A 515, 52 “Bayesian analysis of caustic-crossing microlensing events”

and the above requirement is defined under Eq. 27 of that paper.

Relative number of points per caustic is not yet specified. Points do not repeat. This function is useful for sampling starting distribution for model fitting. For example sampling see Cassan et al. (2010) bottom panel of Fig. 1.

Parameters :
n_points: int

number of points to be returned

n_min_for_caustic: int

minimum number of points in each caustic

caustic: int or None

Select which caustic will be sampled. None means all caustics. Can be 1, 2, or 3 but has to be <= n_caustics.

Returns :
x_caustic_in: np.ndarray

Randomly drawn entrance points.

x_caustic_out: np.ndarray

Corresponding randomly drawn exit points.

jacobian(x_caustic_in, x_caustic_out)

Evaluates Eq. 23 from Cassan et al. (2010) with condition under Eq. 27.

Parameters :
x_caustic_in: float

Point of caustic entrance.

x_caustic_out: float

Point of caustic exit.

Returns :
jacobian: float

Value of Jacobian. Returns 0. if trajectory does not exist.

check_valid_trajectory(x_caustic_in, x_caustic_out)

Check if given (x_caustic_in, x_caustic_out) define an existing trajectory. An obvious case, when they don’t is when both caustic points are on the same fold, but other cases exists.

Parameters :
x_caustic_in: float

Coordinate of putative caustic entrance.

x_caustic_out: float

Coordinate of putative caustic exit.

Returns :
check: bool

True if input defines a trajectory, False if it does not.


Calculate caustic position corresponding to given x_caustic.

Keywords :
x_caustic: float

Curvelinear coordinate of the point considered. Has to be in 0-1 range.

Returns :
point: numpy.complex128

Caustic point in complex coordinates.


Indicates on which caustic given point is.

Keywords :
x_caustic: float

Curvelinear coordinate to be checked

Returns :
i_caustic: int

Number indicating the caustic:

1 - central caustic,

2 - planetary caustic; for close configuration it is the lower of the two planetary caustics,

3 - upper planetary caustic.

property n_caustics


Number of caustics: 1 for resonant topology, 2 for wide topology, or 3 for close topology.

property s


separation of the two lens components relative to Einstein ring size

property q


Mass ratio.